Egy hanyatló vidéki térségben megtelepült nagyvállalat társadalmi hatásai

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Koós, Bálint
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Egyesület Közép-Európa Kutatására
In 2012, a bioethanol plant using advanced technology started operating in Dunaföldvár, the very heart of Hungary’s maize-producing region. This research attempts to determine the local social and economic impacts of this plant. In analysing the local impacts we focussed on the effects related to social issues in rural areas (ageing, migration and social and economic decline) and on the factors mitigating and moderating such effects (job creation, the diversifying of the local economy and the strengthening of social ties). One of the main findings of the analysis is that the plant was built in Dunaföldvár, a rural region which, in the wake of a protracted economic and employment crisis, had become one of Hungary’s most disadvantaged areas with consistently high unemployment. Dunaföldvár’s settlement network had deteriorated: a weak economy and a network of institutions serving a rather small region could not retain the population. Negative demographic processes, ageing and migration had become major trends in the town. In this context, the unprecedented construction of a bioethanol plant using advanced technology has repositioned Dunaföldvár within the settlement network. Existing structures have been shaped and transfonned in more than one respect by the operation of the bioethanol plant. The stakeholders include the local government, financial situation of which has been fundamentally reshaped by the establishment of a plant that contributes a significant amount of local business tax. In view of the fact that the duties and powers of local governments are exceptionally broad in Hungary, the improved financial position of the local government of Dunaföldvár has directly contributed to maintaining or improving the standard of essential infrastructure (the road network) and public services (health care, social care, education and public transport), which is apparent at first hand to inhabitants of the town. The other significant group of stakeholders are the employees of the plant, who are mainly young, experienced skilled workers living in the vicinity. The newly created workplaces have clearly slowed down jobrelated out-migration and has kept mainly young skilled labour in the region, which is key to the region’s future. The bioethanol plant does business with hundreds of maize farmers, fundamentally impacting on their business environment. Telephone-based collection of data from farmers with a long-term business relationship with the plant (N=270) confirms that, overall, the plant in Dunafoldvar has reduced the business risk for such farmers. In the famers’ opinion, the predictable demand for maize from the plant plays an important role in this, while also exerting a price-stabilizing effect.
Dunaújvárosi kistérség , bioetanol üzem , hátrányos helyzetű térségek - Magyarország , társadalmi hatások
Szónokyné Ancsin G. (szerk.) Magyarok a Kárpát-medencében 2.: Tudományos Nemzetközi Konferencia. Konferencia helye, ideje: Szeged, Magyarország, 2016.11.17 Szeged: Egyesület Közép-Európa Kutatására, 2017. pp. 297-312. (Közép-európai monográfiák; 16.) (ISBN:978-615-80462-2-0)