Re-industrialisation in the World and in Hungary

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Czirfusz, Márton
Barta, Györgyi
Kukely, György
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The global industrial division of labour has changed rapidly in recent years. Relocation activities have become particularly vigorous after 2000. Industry has quickly shifted from one country to another. In some countries (e.g. the US and in Western Europe), de-industrialisation has been dominant, while other countries have experienced a marked process of industrialisation. In the meantime, developing countries have increased their overall contribution to global industrial output and labour. Both traditional and new (or high-tech) industrial sectors have displayed high growth rates. The peripheries of Europe, including CEE countries, are characterised by reindustrialisation, although traditional industries are on the decline. In other words, industrial structure has also changed in this part of Europe, but industry as such continues to drive economic development. In these countries, foreign direct investment and international relocation have had a crucial impact on the relevant processes. The three-fold distinction between de-industrialisation, industrialisation and re-industrialisation can prove useful also when studying the case of one particular country. This paper focuses specifically on changes in the Hungarian economy. We will first define the key concept of (re-/de-)industrialisation in general terms and provide an overview of global trends. We then go on to show that from the mid-1990s more and more Hungarian regions have witnessed re-industrialisation processes, most significantly counties in Hungary’s western regions. We will conclude that, regional differences notwithstanding, industry remains the key economic sector for the country’s economic development.
ipari szerkezetváltás , ipari szerkezetváltás - Magyarország , iparosítás , külföldi tőkebefektetések
European Spatial Research and Policy 15:(2) pp. 5-27. (2008)